Afghanistan is an Islamic republic in Central Asia with around 32 million inhabitants. Neighboring countries are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Pakistan and China. Diagonally across the country is high mountains with many fertile valleys and plains. South of this, in the Helmend basin, are the desert areas. The plain of Amu-Darja is in the north. Northwestern extends the rich Hari Rud valley. Afghanistan has three river basins. These rivers are regularly dry. Rivers flow in the east. There is a continental climate in Afghanistan with, in some parts, a desert climate. The capital is Kabul, consisting of almost 3 million inhabitants. Sights in the city are the Garden of Babur, the museum, the Pol-i-Chisti mosque and the bazaar on the Jodi Mai wall. Other important cities are Kandahar commercial center, Mazar-e-Sjarif pilgrimage city and the historic city of Herat. Also Dzjalalabad, textile city Konduz, Ghazni and Baghlan. The Unesco World Heritage Site lists the cultural landscape and archaeological ruins of the Bamiyan Valley and the archaeological ruins and minaret of Jam. Other attractions are the Paghman and Chakardara valleys, the Band-i-Amir lakes, the holy city of Mazar-i-Sharif, the Karezi-Amir and Charikar and the Hindu Kush nature reserve.

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